193. A hospitalized patient (male or female) should make sure before the Sabbath that he has at least 86cc (ml)[312] of wine or grape-juice[313] for kiddush from which 44cc (ml) will be drunk[314]. The wine must be hidden in a safe place[315] or previously boiled wine used[316].

194. One should use the best available cup for kiddush: if possible, a throw-away cup should not be used[317].

195. If wine is not available, kiddush is made over two loaves of bread[318] and if unavailable, on even a slice of bread (27gm)[319]. If he has no bread, kiddush is made on cake of one of the five species. If even this is unavailable, kiddush is made on beer or fresh juice (prepared before the Sabbath)[320].

196. If one has no choice but to make kiddush on cake, one should eat a sufficient quantity to qualify for a "set meal" [defined as an amount of cake equal to the amount of bread one would normally eat for a sandwich dinner[321]] and wash with the blessing of al netilath yadayim. Two full cakes are taken for lechem mishneh and kiddush is recited after the blessing of hamotsi. Birkath hamazon is recited after the meal[322]. However, even if all that is available is one slice of cake (27gm), kiddush is still said over it. Finally, if sufficient cake is not available, kiddush is still made on what cake there is following the blessing of bore minei mezonoth[323].

197. In the morning, if wine is not available. kiddush is recited on beer or fresh juice (prepared before the Sabbath)[324]. If this is not available, the morning kiddush may be recited on milk, coffee or sweet tea[325]. If the only fluid available is water, kiddush is recited over two loaves of bread or at least two slices of bread, each of 27gm (for lechem mishneh). At the very least, one such slice of bread will suffice. The blessing of hamotsi is recited with kiddush in mind. If no bread is available, cake may be used and the blessing of mezonoth recited before eating it[326].

198. If none of the above are available, the patient is still obligated to eat the Sabbath meals (night and morning) without reciting kiddush[327].

199. A patient who is unable to drink 44cc (ml) of wine or grape juice, or drink it within four minutes, should taste a little and give the rest to someone else present to drink the required quantity, having made the blessing for both of them. However if he is unable to drink any wine at all, it is preferable that he recite kiddush on bread or allow someone else (who will drink the required quantity) to make kiddush for both of them on wine[328].

200. A patient who cannot eat 27gm of bread[329] or drink 86cc (ml) of wine or grape juice within four minutes[330], is exempt from kiddush the same as one who has neither wine nor bread available[331]. If there is no one who will recite kiddush for him, he should have in mind the mitzvah of kiddush during the shemoneh esreh prayer on Friday night and eat his meal without kiddush[332].

201. A patient who could not hear the recitation of kiddush at night, or heard it but could not eat either 27gm of bread or cake or drink at least 44cc (ml) of wine (see paragraph 204 below), should recite kiddush the following morning (if he can either drink or eat the required amount) as he would have done at night but without the vayechulu prayer[333].

202. Similarly, if he did not recite kiddush at any time during the night of a Festival, he should recite kiddush in the morning[334]. The shehecheyanu blessing, however, should be said at night even though he does not recite kiddush. If he did not do so, it is recited in the morning[335].

203. A patient who is fed via a tube inserted into the stomach (nasogastric tube or gastrostomy) is exempt from kiddush the same as he is from any blessing before or after eating[336]. However, it would be nice if he could hear kiddush from someone else who is reciting it for himself[337].

204. The obligation of kiddush is only fulfilled if recited where one is to eat[338] and prior to the meal[339]. Hence one must eat immediately after[340] without even a short break[341]. However a patient who recited kiddush with the intention of eating immediately, but because of circumstances not under his control ate later (for example, the food was served later than expected or his doctor or nurse came to treat him), has fulfilled his obligation provided he did not go away from where he recited kiddush[342] or, if he did, it was with the intention of returning[343].

205. A patient who needs to eat cake before reciting his morning prayers, should recite kiddush before eating. Preferably he should say at least the blessings over the Torah and the first paragraph of the shema. If he only intends to eat fruit there is no need to recite kiddush[344].

206. A patient (whether man or woman) who did not eat his meal on Friday night, should eat three meals during the day[345]. If he did not eat on the Festival night, two meals should be eaten during the day[346].


[312] According to the Chazon Ish, 150 cc.

[313] See Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 47:9.

[314] Orach Chayyim 271:13 and Be’ur Halachah s.v. ve-hu.

[315] See Yoreh Deah 272:2 and Orach Chayyim 385:3 and Mishnah Berurah 385:19.

[316] Yoreh Deah 123:3; Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 47:19.

[317] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 47:11.

[318] Orach Chayyim 272:9.

[319] Mishnah Berurah 274:2. See Nishmat Avraham Pt. 4, Orach Chayyim 475:1 (page 70) for measuring by weight instead of volume.

[320] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:7 and 53:18.

[321] Mishnah Berurah 168:24. See Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:18 and 54:31.

[322] Orach Chayyim 168:6.

[323] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:18.

[324] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:9.

[325] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:11.

[326] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:12.

[327] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:14 and note 50.

[328] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 48:14.

[329] i.e., one should preferably eat 54 grams of bread within about four minutes for each 27 grams. When unable to do so, 27 grams of bread are sufficient within about four minutes.

[330] i.e., one should preferably drink 86 cc, or 150 cc according to the Chazon Ish, in addition to the 44 cc of wine needed for kiddush. When unable to do so, a total of 86 cc, or 150 cc, is sufficient. But see Mishnah Berurah, according to whom the use of wine alone for kiddush is limited to pressing cases.

[331] Written communication from R. Y.Y. Neuwirth. See the text in Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 40:47.

[332] See Sha'arei Teshuvah 272:2; Mishnah Berurah 289:10; Resp. Iggerot Moshe Orach Chayyim 2:26, s.v. u-ve-davar.

[333] Written communication from R. Y.Y. Neuwirth.

[334] Mishnah Berurah 291:8.

[335] Written communication from R. Y.Y. Neuwirth based on Tract. Eiruvin 40b.

[336] Oral communication from R. Y.Y. Neuwirth. See Nishmat Avraham Pt. 1, Orach Chayyim 210:1 (page 93).

[337] Resp. Machazeh Avraham 1:32; Resp. Tsits Eliezer 13:35.

[338] Orach Chayyim 273:1.

[339] Rema 373:3 and Mishnah Berurah 273:14.

[340] Rema 373:3.

[341] Mishnah Berurah 273:12.

[342] Mishnah Berurah 273:13; Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 53:16. See Nishmat Avraham Pt. 1, Orach Chayyim 273:1, note 7 (page 113) in the name of R. Sh.Z. Auerbach. and R. Y.Y. Neuwirth.         

[343] Mishnah Berurah 273:12.

[344] Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 52:12.

[345] Rema 271:1.

[346] Mishnah Berurah 271:5. See the details in Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 56:5.